2020-Rapid high-throughput determination of major components and amino acids in a single peanut kernel based on portable near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics
The quality traits of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are fundamental to the whole peanut industry. However, many common analyses require the sample to be brought to the laboratory. Therefore, this research explores the feasibility of portable near-infrared spectroscopy combined with a single detection accessory to analyse the composition of peanuts in a single seed level quantitatively. The single detection accessory was specifically designed for spectral data collection considering the internal and external characteristics of single peanuts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the oil body and protein body were randomly distributed at cell of single peanuts. The external characteristics of single peanuts were also determined and considered length (11.32–24.25 mm) and width (7.49–12.25 mm). The chemical compositional data (i.e. fat, sucrose, protein, and 16 amino acids) were determined by conventional wet-chemical methods and showed large variation. Principal component analysis on the compositional data showed that peanuts with higher fat contents usually have higher hydrophobic amino acids contents, lower sucrose contents, and lower protein contents. The composition prediction models of single peanuts were estimated using partial least squares regression models that were integrated with different spectral pre-treatments and validated by external sets. The results showed that the prediction models have good performance with a correlation coefficient above 0.88 (calibration) and 0.83 (prediction) and a residual prediction deviation above 1.5 except for a few indicators. Overall, the portable near- infrared spectroscopy offered reliable methods to assess the major components and amino acids quantitatively in a single peanut, which will improve the raw material quality in the peanut industry through the simultaneous and short-term determination of multiple indicators.